Thursday, May 21, 2020

Sexuality And Gender Relationship Values - 1874 Words

Sexuality and Gender Relationship Values in Young Adulthood Michelle Moreno Union Institute and University Human Growth and Development CPM 506 Dr. Andrew Vengrove August 16, 2014 Abstract This scholarly paper focuses on sexuality and relationship values in young adulthood. It will draw mostly on the relationship values of gender, marriage, and sexual orientation. Other than for procreation, very little research has been done that has not involved western cultures. Because of this lack of knowledge, this paper mainly focuses on the research that has been conducted in the West. The focus of sexuality in the West is much more liberal and is not so much concerned with procreation but rather on connecting two individuals who are†¦show more content†¦The traditional sense of a union between young adults is to encourage sexual relations is to have children. In the West, sexual activity in young adulthood is less focused on continuing the bloodline. Conversely, an active sex life is considered to be central for supporting the intimacy of the couple’s union as well as their mutual enjoyment and pleasure. â€Å"Extensive research in the West reports that sexual enjoyment between young adult couples promotes as well as reflects emotional closeness in their relationship† (Arnett, p. 487, 2012). Are there any differences in how relationship values are viewed by gender and/or sexual identity? This paper will present various studies to further explore relationship values in the context of gender and sexuality. Relationship Values Recent decades have brought significant social changes in the industrialized West that may influence young adults attitudes about intimate relationships (Meier, Hull Ortyl, 2009). According to a Meier, Hull, and Ortyl (2009) research, it was discovered that the majority of young adults lean toward the dominant relationship values intrinsic in an ideology of romance and love. However, they also discovered that there are conservative but significant differences by gender and sexual orientation of the individual in relationship values. In their study, it was also discovered that significant interactions demonstrated either from gender

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Understanding Black Holes Essay - 1070 Words

Like the boundaries on earth, mankind has always looked to the sky in awe for it seemed boundless in its ever growing horizon. Out of all the cosmos that’s being found and discovered every day, there is one object that stands to elude scientists still, the black hole. Albert Einstein, and all the brilliant scientists after his, help to design and create a part of the universe that’s very crucial to understanding existence. The perimeters of a black hole have been a great this that has been discussed and observed to the point where it eventually becomes clear as its compared to objects around or like it. The physics of the black holes existence is still unclear for it shows properties that support Einstein’s theory and quantum mechanics,†¦show more content†¦(Clegg, Brian) Karl Schwarzschild found a solution to Einstein’s theory, if enough matter was packed in to a small region of space, he said, it should have a strong enough gravitational field that even light couldn’t escape it. Roy Kerr stated that the bigger the star, the greater the ‘drag’ on the space-time around it. But later his equations were looked at again and it was shown that this theory would be applied to black holes. 1971, an x-ray satellite, Uhuru, had spotted a flicking that was shown by a binary star system of a white supergiant and a black hole. The black hole was taking the gas that was being emitted by the white supergiant and while the gas spiraled in to it, spurts of gas were ripped from the faster then the speed of light. Stephen Hawking shows that black holes may not be black: they may emit a form of radiation that will eventually cause them to evaporate. (Black Hole Encyclopedia yr. 1974) this type of radiation was coined as hawking radiation, for it stated that when hawking particles were near the event horizon, the negatively charged side would fall in while the positive flew out, making the firewall paradox. (Black hole Encyclopedia) The problem with the black hole is the understanding of where does the information go after it’s eaten, thus, the information paradox. The firewall paradox is one of the two that should happen, but don’t. The process of the firewall is when aShow MoreRelatedUnderstanding Black Holes Essay1929 Words   |  8 PagesUnderstanding Black Holes A Black hole is a theorized celestial body whose surface gravity is so strong that nothing, including light, can escape from within its surface. Gravity is the key to a black holes immense power. The black holes strong gravity keeps captured material from escaping. For example, if Earth were the same mass it is now but had only one-fourth its present radius, the escape velocity of someone standing on its surface would be twice whatRead MoreEssay about Understanding Black Holes2354 Words   |  10 PagesThroughout the modern era of astronomy, a single type of celestial object has puzzled astronomers more than any other. 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Exxon Mobil and Environment Free Essays

string(136) " 70 mph in Prince William Sound, weathered much of the oil, changing it into mousse and tarballs, and distributed it over a large area\." Author Login Encyclopedia of Earth Search Top of Form [pic][pic] Bottom of Form †¢ Earthportal †¢ Earthnews †¢ Encyclopedia of Earth †¢ Forum EoE Pages o Home o About the EoE o Editorial Board o International Advisory Board o FAQs o EoE for Educators o Contribute to the EoE o Support the EoE o Contact the EoE o Find Us Here o RSS o Reviews o Awards and Honors †¢ [pic] Solutions Journal [pic] Browse the EoE o Titles (A-Z) o Author o Topics o Topic Editor o Content Partners o Content Sources o eBooks o Environmental Classics o Collections †¢ [pic] †¢ [pic] †¢ [pic] Exxon Valdez oil spill Table of Contents | |1 Introduction | |2 Events leading up to the spill | |3 The behavior of the oil | |4 Countermeasures and Mitigation | |4. 1 Control of the oil spill at sea | |4. 2 Shoreline treatment | |5 Economic impacts | |6 How much oil remains? |7 Ecosystem response to the spill | |7. We will write a custom essay sample on Exxon Mobil and Environment or any similar topic only for you Order Now 1 Acute Mortality | |7. 2 Long-term impacts | |7. 3 State of recovery | |8 Legal responsibility of ExxonMobil | |8. 1 Criminal Settlement | |8. 1. 1 Plea Agreement | |8. 1. Criminal Restitution | |8. 2 Civil Settlement | |9 The response of ExxonMobil | |10 Lessons learned from the spill | |11 Further Reading | | | |[pic] | [pic] Contributing Author: Cutler J. Cleveland (other articles) Content Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (other articles) Article Topics: Pollution and Energy This article has been reviewed and approved by the following Topic Editor: Peter Saundry (other articles) Last Updated: August 26, 2008 [pic] Introduction On March 24, 1989, the tanker Exxon Valdez, en route from Valdez, Alaska to Los Angeles, California, ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The vessel was traveling outside normal shipping lanes in an attempt to avoid ice. Within six hours of the grounding, the Exxon Valdez spilled approximately 10. 9 million gallons of its 53 million gallon cargo of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Eight of the eleven tanks on board were damaged. The oil would eventually impact over 1,100 miles of non-continuous coastline in Alaska, making the Exxon Valdez the largest oil spill to date in U. S. waters. The response to the Exxon Valdez involved more personnel and equipment over a longer period of time than did any other spill in U. S. history. Logistical problems in providing fuel, meals, berthing, response equipment, waste management and other resources were one of the largest challenges to response management. At the height of the response, more than 11,000 personnel, 1,400 vessels and 85 aircraft were involved in the cleanup. [pic] [pic] The Exxon Valdez aground on Bligh Reef. (Source: NOAA) Shoreline cleanup began in April of 1989 and continued until September of 1989 for the first year of the response. The response effort continued in 990 and 1991 with cleanup in the summer months, and limited shoreline monitoring in the winter months. Fate and effects monitoring by state and Federal agencies are ongoing. The images that the world saw on television and descriptions they heard on the radio that spring were of heavily oiled shorelines, dead and dying wildlife, and thousands of workers mobilized to clean beaches. These images reflected what many people felt was a severe environmental insult to a relatively pristine, ecol ogically important area that was home to many species of wildlife endangered elsewhere. In the weeks and months that followed, the oil spread over a wide area in Prince William Sound and beyond, resulting in an unprecedented response and cleanup—in fact, the largest oil spill cleanup ever mobilized. Many local, state, federal, and private agencies and groups took part in the effort. Even today, scientists continue to study the affected shorelines to understand how an ecosystem like Prince William Sound responds to, and recovers from, an incident like the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Events leading up to the spill The Exxon Valdez departed from the Trans Alaska Pipeline terminal at 9:12 pm, March 23, 1989. William Murphy, an expert ship’s pilot hired to maneuver the 986-foot vessel through the Valdez Narrows, was in control of the wheelhouse. At his side was the captain of the vessel, Joe Hazelwood. Helmsman Harry Claar was steering. After passing through Valdez Narrows, pilot Murphy left the vessel and Captain Hazelwood took over the wheelhouse. The Exxon Valdez encountered icebergs in the shipping lanes and Captain Hazelwood ordered Claar to take the Exxon Valdez out of the shipping lanes to go around the ice. He then handed over control of the wheelhouse to Third Mate Gregory Cousins with precise instructions to turn back into the shipping lanes when the tanker reached a certain point. At that time, Claar was replaced by Helmsman Robert Kagan. For reasons that remain unclear, Cousins and Kagan failed to make the turn back into the shipping lanes and the ship ran aground on Bligh Reef at 12:04 a. m. , March 24, 1989. Captain Hazelwood was in his quarters at the time. The National Transportation Safety Board investigated the accident and determined five probable causes of the grounding: (1) The third mate failed to properly maneuver the vessel, possibly due to fatigue and excessive workload; (2) the master failed to provide a proper navigation watch, possibly due to impairment from alcohol; (3) Exxon Shipping Company failed to supervise the master and provide a rested and sufficient crew for the Exxon Valdez; (4) the U. S. Coast Guard failed to provide an effective vessel traffic system; and (5) effective pilot and escort services were lacking. The behavior of the oil [pic] [pic] The oil slick (blue areas) eventually extended 470 miles southwest from Bligh Reef. The spill area eventually totaled 11,000 square miles. (Source: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council) Prudhoe Bay crude oil has an API gravity of 27. 0, and a pour point of 0 degrees Celcius. The bulk of the oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez was released within 6 hours of the ship’s grounding. The general trend of the oil was south and west from the point of origin. For the first few days after the spill, most of the oil was in a large concentrated patch near Bligh Island. On March 26, a storm, which generated winds of over 70 mph in Prince William Sound, weathered much of the oil, changing it into mousse and tarballs, and distributed it over a large area. You read "Exxon Mobil and Environment" in category "Essay examples" By March 30, the oil extended 90 miles from the spill site. Ultimately, from Bligh Reef, the spill stretched 470 miles southwest to the village of Chignik on the Alaska Peninsula. Approximately 1,300 miles of shoreline were oiled. 200 miles were heavily or moderately oiled (obvious impact); 1,100 miles were lightly or very lightly oiled (light sheen or occasional tarballs). The spill region contains more than 9,000 miles of shoreline. In addition to the storm of March 26, the spill occurred at a time of year when the spring tidal fluctuations were nearly 18 feet. This tended to deposit the oil onto shorelines above the normal zone of wave action. The diversity in shoreline types in the affected areas led to varied oiling conditions. In some cases, oil was present on sheer rock faces making access and cleanup difficult, or rocky beaches with grain size anywhere from coarse sand to boulders, where the oil could percolate to a sub-surface level. The spill affected both sheltered and exposed (to high wave/weather action) shorelines. Once oil landed on a shoreline it could be floated off at the next high tide, carried to and deposited in a different location, making the tracking of oil migration and shoreline impact very difficult. This migration ended by mid-summer 1989, and the remaining cleanup dealt with oiled shorelines, rather than oil in the water. Cleanup operations continued during the summer months of 1990 and 1991. By 1990, surface oil, where it existed, had become significantly weathered. Sub-surface oil, on the other hand, was in many cases much less weathered and still in a liquid state. The liquid sub-surface oil could give off a sheen when disturbed. Cleanup in 1991 concentrated on the remaining reduced quantities of surface and sub-surface oil. Countermeasures and Mitigation Control of the oil spill at sea The Alyeska Pipeline Service Company was immediately notified of the incident and sent a tug to the site to assist in stabilizing the vessel. At the time of the incident, the Alyeska spill response barge was out of service being re-outfitted. It arrived on scene by 1500 on 24 March. Alyeska was overwhelmed by the magnitude of the incident; by March 25, Exxon had assumed full responsibility for the spill and cleanup effort. [pic] [pic] The Exxon Valdez surrounded by a containment boom. Source: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council) Deployment of boom around the vessel was complete within 35 hours of the grounding. Exxon conducted successful dispersant test applications on March 25 and 26 and was granted permission on March 26 to apply dispersants to the oil slick. Due to the large storm that began the evening of March 26, much of the oil turned into mousse. As dispersants aren’t generally able to dissipate oil in the form of mousse, it was no longer practical to use dispersants on floating oil during this response. On the evening of March 25, a test in-situ burn of oil on water was conducted. Approximately 15,000 to 30,000 gallons of oil were collected using 3M Fire Boom towed behind two fishing vessels in a U-shaped configuration, and ignited. The oil burned for a total of 75 minutes and was reduced to approximately 300 gallons of residue that could be collected easily. It was estimated that the efficiency of this test burn was 98 percent or better. Again, continued in-situ burning was not possible because of the change in the oil’s state after the storm of March 26. Five dispersant trials took place between March 25 and March 28, but by March 29 the Regional Response Team (RRT) decided that dispersants were no longer feasible. Because there was not enough equipment to protect all the shorelines that could be impacted, Federal, state and local agencies collaborated to establish shoreline protection priorities. The agencies decided that fish hatcheries and salmon streams had the highest priority; accordingly, containment booms were deployed to protect these areas. Five fish hatcheries in Prince William Sound and two in the Gulf of Alaska were boomed, with the largest amount of boom deployed at the Sawmill Bay hatchery in Prince William Sound. At the height of containment efforts, it is estimated that a total of 100 miles of boom was deployed. Almost all the types of boom available on the market were used and tested during the spill response. Due to the size of the spill, it was necessary to employ inexperienced workers to deploy and tend booms, and this led to some boom being incorrectly used or handled, and sometimes damaged. Some boom sank because of improper deployment, infrequent tending, or leakage and/or inadequacy in the buoyancy system. Other problems included fabric tears in boom due to debris, and tearing at anchorage points from wave action. In some cases, ballast chains were ripped off during boom recovery if the boom was lifted by the chain. One estimate suggests that 50 percent of the damage to larger boom came during boom recovery. For self-inflating booms, it was important to keep the inflation valves above the water during deployment so that the boom did not become filled with water and have to be replaced. Aerial surveillance was used to direct the deployment of booms and skimmers for open water oil recovery. Visual overflight observations as well as ultraviolet/infrared (UV/IR) surveys were used by the USCG and Exxon to track the floating oil. Satellite imagery was also tested as a method to track oil but was not very useful because of the infrequency of satellite passes over Prince William Sound (every 7 to 8 days), cloud cover, and lengthy turn around time for results. The primary means of open water oil recovery was with skimmers. In general, most skimmers became less effective once the oil had spread, emulsified and mixed with debris. To save time, it was most practical to keep skimmer offloading equipment and oil storage barges near the skimmers. The most used skimmers during the response were the Marco sorbent lifting-belt skimmers that were supplied by the U. S. Navy. Once oil became viscous, the sorbent part of the skimmer was removed and the conveyor belt alone was sufficient to pull the oil up the ramp. The pump that came with the skimmer had difficulty offloading viscous oil, so that other vacuum equipment was used to unload the collected oil. The Marco skimmers were generally not used close to shore because they draw between three and four feet. In general, the paddle belt and rope mop skimmers were the most useful for recovery of oil from the shoreline. The skimmers were placed on self-propelled barges with a shallow draft. Sorbents were used to recover oil in cases where mechanical means were less practical. The drawback to sorbents was that they were labor intensive and generated additional solid waste. Sorbent boom was used to collect sheen between primary and secondary layers of offshore boom, and to collect sheen released from the beach during tidal flooding. Pompoms were useful for picking up small amounts of weathered oil. Towing of sorbent boom in a zigzag or circular fashion behind a boat was used to collect oil and was more efficient than towing the boom in a straight line. Sorbent booms made of rolled pads were more effective than booms made of individual particles because these absorbed less water and were stronger, and did not break into many small particles if they came apart. Early on in the response, storage space for recovered oil was in short supply. To combat the storage space problem, water was decanted from skimmers or tanks into a boomed area before offloading. As a result, the remaining viscous oil mixture was difficult to offload, the process sometimes taking up to 6 to 8 hours. High-capacity skimmer offloading pumps, in particular grain pumps, were the most useful in transferring viscous oil. The oil remaining on the Exxon Valdez, was completely offloaded by the end of the first week in April 1989. After offloading operations were completed, the tanker was towed to a location 25 miles from Naked Island in Prince William Sound for temporary repairs. Later in the summer of 1989, the vessel was brought to California for further repairs. Shoreline treatment Shoreline assessment was a prerequisite for the implementation of any beach cleanup. Assessment provided geomorphological, biological, archaeological and oiling information that was used for the development of site specific treatment strategies. Cleanup operations were scheduled around specific activities such as seal haulout activity, seal pupping, eagle nesting, fish spawning, fishing seasons, and other significant events as much as possible. [pic] [pic] Shoreline treatment from the Exxon Valdez spill. (Source: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council) In 1989, hoses spraying seawater were used to flush oil from shorelines. The released oil was then trapped with offshore boom, and removed using skimmers, vacuum trucks (useful for thick layers of oil) and boom (sorbent, snare, pompoms). For hard to reach areas, or locations with weathered oil, heated seawater was used to flush oil from the shoreline. Converted vessels and barges were used for beach washing operations. It would take several days to outfit a conventional barge with the equipment needed to heat and pump the water. Smaller vessels that were used for beach washing early in the spill were re-outfitted for bioremediation later in the response. Along with the large-scale beach washing, manual cleanup, raking and tilling the beaches, oily debris pickup, enhanced bioremediation and spot washing were used to cleanup the oil. In some locations, oil was thick enough to be picked up with shovels and buckets. In addition, mechanical methods were used on a few sites, including the use of bulldozers to relocate or remove the contaminated beach surfaces. Mechanical rock washing machines, which were manufactured for the spill, were not used to clean contaminated rocks and return them to the beach. Oiled storm berm was mechanically relocated in some cases so that these areas, which normally would not receive much wave action, would be more exposed and cleaned by natural processes. If the oiling in the berm was significant or persistent it was tilled to free the oil or washed to optimize the cleaning. Recommendations were made to restrict the movement of berm to the upper third of the beach to ensure its return to the original location. [pic] [pic] Beach washing. (Source: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council) Beach applications of dispersants were tried in several locations. Corexit 7664 was applied on Ingot Island, followed by a warm water wash. No significant change in oil cover or the physical state of the oil was observed as a result of the treatment. Some ecological impacts were observed in the treated areas. It appeared that the effects were largely due to the intensive washing more than to the use of Corexit 7664, and were evident in intertidal epibenthic macrobiota. In addition, the dispersant BP1100X was applied to a test area on Knight Island. Toxicology studies indicated that the upper and lower intertidal biota were different from pre-application communities the day after dispersant application, and returned to pre-treatment levels after seven days. In May of 1989, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Exxon conducted bioremediation trials at two test sites on Knight Island in Prince William Sound. On the basis of these tests and other trials later in the summer, Exxon recommended the use of the bioremediation enhancement agents, Inipol (Inipol EAP22—manufactured by Elf Aquitaine of France) and Customblen (Customblen 28-8-0 —manufactured by Sierra Chemicals of California), and subsequently treated over 70 miles of shoreline in Prince William Sound with these agents. Winter monitoring of the effects of bioremediation consisted of surveys of more than 20 beaches in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. These studies determined that oil degradation had been enhanced on the shorelines monitored, but some debate existed over whether bioremediation was solely, or even largely, responsible. Cleanup operations in 1989 ceased by the end of September. All parties involved in the response agreed that continuation of cleanup into the Alaskan winter would jeopardize the safety of cleanup crews. In addition, it was speculated that the winter storms in Alaska could significantly remove oil from shorelines, including sub-surface oil. By the end of the 1989 cleanup, more than 25,000 tons of oiled waste and several hundred thousand barrels of oil/liquid waste were collected and disposed of in landfills. Cleanup in 1990 began in April and ended in September. Surveys in the spring of 1990 showed that oiling conditions had been reduced or changed over the winter. Surface oil in 1990 was significantly weathered but sub-surface oil was relatively fresh in some locations. Cleanup techniques in 1990 focused more on manual methods of treatment such as hand wiping and spot washing as well as bioremediation. Mechanical equipment was used on a few sites. Bioremediation was more extensive in 1990, with 378 of the 587 shoreline segments treated that year receiving bioremediation application. In general, Inipol was applied in cases where surface oiling existed and Customblen slow release pellets were preferred for treating beaches with sub-surface oiling. Generally, beaches were given one to three treatments over several months. Concern over the possible toxicity of Inipol led to recommendations for application of only Customblen on some sites. By the spring of 1991, the scope of the cleanup effort was greatly reduced. Manual cleanup, bioremediation, and very limited use of mechanical equipment were employed. Cleanup took place from May of 1991 through July of 1991. An important observation that resulted from the Exxon Valdez oil spill was that natural cleaning processes, on both sheltered and exposed beaches, were in many cases very effective at degrading oil. It took longer for some sections of shoreline to recover from some of the invasive cleaning methods (hot water flushing in particular) than from the oiling itself. Economic impacts The State of Alaska funded a several studies of the short term economic impact of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. [pic] [pic] Recreational fishing in Alaska. (Source: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council) 1. Recreational Sport Fishing Losses. This loss was estimated based on the impacts of the spill on sport fishing activity. One must consider the impact on the number of anglers, the number of sport fishing trips, the areas fished, the species fished for, and the length of these trips. For 1989 the loss was estimated to be between $0 and $580 million dollars; for 1990 the range was $3. 6 million $50. 5 million dollars. 2. Tourism Losses. The spill caused both negative and positive effects. The major negative effects were: 1. Decreased resident and non-resident vacation/pleasure visitor traffic in the spill-affected areas due to lack of available visitor services (accommodations, charter boats, air taxis). 2. Severe labor shortage in the visitor industry throughout the state due to traditional service industry workers seeking high-paying spill clean-up jobs. 3. Fifty-nine percent of businesses in the most affected areas reported spill-related cancellations and 16% reported business was less than expected due to the spill. The principle positive impact was strong spill-related business in some areas and in certain businesses such as hotels, taxis, car/RV rentals and boat charters. 1. Existence value. Economists tried to estimate the damage to so-called non-use or existence value of the Prince William Sound region in the wake of the spill. This is an attempt top measure what cannot be observed in the market: the value to the public of a pristine Prince William Sound. They estimated existence value using contingent valuation, a survey approach designed to create the missing market for public goods by determining what people would be willing to pay (WTP) for specified changes in the quantity or quality of such goods or, more rarely, what they would be willing to accept (WTA) in compensation for well-specified degradations in the provision of these goods. The results suggest an aggrragete loss of $4. 9 to $7. 2 billion dollars. In effect, these amounts reflect the public’s willingness to pay to prevent another Exxon Valdez type oil spill given the scenario posed. . Replacement costs of birds and mammals. These costs include the relocation, replacement and rehabilitation for some of the shorebirds, seabirds and the marine and terrestrial mammals that may have suffered injury or were destroyed in the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The values range from $20,000 to $300,000 dollars per marine mammal (sea otters, whales, seal lions, seals), $125 to $500 dollars per terrestrial animal (bears, river otters, mink, deer), and $170 to $6,000 dollars for seabirds and eagles. How much oil remains? Based on the areas that were studied in the aftermath of the spill, scientists made estimates of the ultimate fate of the oil. A 2001 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) study surveyed 96 sites along 8,000 miles of coastline. [pic] [pic] A pit dug on a Prince William Sound beach in 2001 revealing oil in the sediments. (Source: NOAA) The survey distinguished between surface and buried oil. Buried or subsurface oil is of greater concern than surface oil. Subsurface oil can remain dormant for many years before being dispersed and is more liquid, still toxic, and may become biologically available. A disturbance event such as burrowing animals or a severe storm reworks the beach and can reintroduce unweathered oil into the water. Results of the summer shoreline survey showed that the oil remaining on the surface of beaches in Prince William Sound is weathered and mostly hardened into an asphalt-like layer. The toxic components of this type of surface oil are not as readily available to biota, although some softer forms do cause sheens in tide pools. The survey indicates a total area of approximately 20 acres of shoreline in Prince William Sound are still contaminated with oil. Oil was found at 58 percent of the 91 sites assessed and is estimated to have the linear equivalent of 5. 8 km of contaminated shoreline. In addition to the estimated area of remaining oiled beach, several other important points were evident: 1. Surface oil was determined to be not a good indicator of subsurface oil. 2. Twenty subsurface pits were classified as heavily oiled. Oil saturated all of the interstitial spaces and was extremely repugnant. These â€Å"worst case† pits exhibited an oil mixture that resembled oil encountered in 1989 a few weeks after the spill—highly odiferous, lightly weathered, and very fluid. 3. Subsurface oil was also found at a lower tide height than expected (between 0 and 6 feet), in contrast to the surface oil, which was found mostly at the highest levels of the beach. This is significant, because the pits with the most oil were found low in the intertidal zone, closest to the zone of biological production, and indicate that the survey estimates are conservative at best. Ecosystem response to the spill Recovery is a very difficult term to define and measure for a complex ecosystem such as Prince William Sound. If you ask a fisherman from Kodiak Island, a villager from the town of Valdez, an Exxon engineer, or a NOAA iologist, you are likely to receive such different answers that you may wonder if they heard the same question. In particular, disagreements exist between Exxon and government-funded scientists, and unknowns persist, especially in understanding how multiple processes combine to drive observed dynamics. Despite this, there are some things known with a high de gree of certainty: oil persisted beyond a decade in surprising amounts and in toxic forms, was sufficiently bioavailable to induce chronic biological exposures, and had long-term impacts at the population level. Three major pathways of long-term impacts emerge: (1) chronic persistence of oil, biological exposures, and population impacts to species closely associated with shallow sediments; (2) delayed population impacts of sublethal doses compromising health, growth, and reproduction; and (3) indirect effects of trophic and interaction cascades, all of which transmit impacts well beyond the acute-phase mortality. Acute Mortality [pic] [pic] Sea birds killed by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. (Source: NOAA) Marine mammals and seabirds are at great risk from floating oil because they have routine contact with the sea surface. Oiling of fur or feathers causes loss of insulating capacity and can lead to death from hypothermia, smothering, drowning, and ingestion of toxic hydrocabons. Scientists estimate mass mortalities of 1000 to 2800 sea otters, 302 harbor seals, and unprecedented numbers of seabird deaths estimated at 250,000 in the days immediately after the oil spill. Mass mortality also occurred among macroalgae and benthic invertebrates on oiled shores from a combination of chemical toxicity, smothering, and physical displacement from the habitat by pressurized wash-water applied after the spill. Long-term impacts The persistent nature of oil in sediments produce chronic, long-term exposure risks from some species. For example, chronic exposures for years after the spill to oil persisting in sedimentary refuges were evident from biomarkers in fish, sea otters, and seaducks intimately associated with sediments for egg laying or foraging. These chronic exposures enhanced mortality for years. Indirect effects can be as important as direct exposure. Cascading indirect effects are delayed in operation because they are mediated through changes in an intermediary. Perhaps the two generally most influential types of indirect interactions are: (1) trophic cascades in which predators reduce abundance of their prey, which in turn releases the prey’s food species from control; and (2) provision of biogenic habitat by organisms that serve as or create important physical structure in the environment. [pic] [pic] A healthy stand of rockweed (Fucus gardneri) growing on a boulder in Prince William Sound. Source: NOAA) Scientists have found that indirect interactions lengthened the recovery process on rocky shorelines for a decade or more. Dramatic initial loss of cover by the most important biogenic habitat provider, the rockweed Fucus gardneri, triggered a cascade of indirect impacts. Freeing of space on the rocks and the losses of important grazing (limpets and periwinkles) and predatory (whelks) gastropods combined to promote initi al blooms of ephemeral green algae in 1989 and 1990 and an opportunistic barnacle, Chthamalus dalli, in 1991. Absence of structural algal canopy led to declines in associated invertebrates and inhibited recovery of Fucus itself, whose recruits avoid desiccation under the protective cover of the adult plants. Those Fucus plants that subsequently settled on tests of Chthamalus dalli became dislodged during storms because of the structural instability of the attachment of this opportunistic barnacle. After apparent recovery of Fucus, previously oiled shores exhibited another mass rockweed mortality in 1994, a cyclic instability probably caused by simultaneous senility of a single-aged stand. The importance of indirect interactions in rocky shore communities is well established, and the general sequence of succession on rocky intertidal shores extending over a decade after the Exxon Valdez oil spill closely resembles the dynamics after the Torrey Canyon oil spill in the UK. State of recovery The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council published a study in 2004 to assess the state of the resources injured by the spill. Fifteen years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill, it is clear that some fish and wildlife species injured by the spill have not fully recovered. It is less clear, however, what role oil plays in the inability of some populations to bounce back. An ecosystem is dynamic — ever changing — and continues its natural cycles and fluctuations at the same time that it struggles with the impacts of spilled oil. As time passes, separating natural change from oil-spill impacts becomes more and more difficult. The Trustee Council recognizes 30 resources or species as injured by the spill. Depending on their status as of 2002, these have been placed in one of five categories: Not Recovering These resources are showing little or no clear improvement since spill injuries occurred: Common loon Cormorants (3 species), Harbor seal, Harlequin duck, Pacific herring, Pigeon guillemot Recovery unknown Limited data on life history or extent of injury is available. Current research is either inconclusive or not complete: Cutthroat trout, Dolly Varden, Kittlitz’s murrelet, Rockfish Subtidal communities [pic] [pic] Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). (Source: NOAA) Recovered Recovery objectives have been met: Archaeological resources, Bald eagle, Black oystercatcher, Common murre, Pink salmon, River otter, Sockeye salmon Recovering Clams, Wilderness Areas, Intertidal communities, Killer whale (AB pod), Marbled murrelet, Mussels, Sea otter, Sediments Human uses Human services that depend on natural resources were also injured by the spill. These services are each categorized as â€Å"recovering† until the resources they depend on are fully recovered: Commercial fishing, Passive use, Recreation and tourism, Subsistence Prior to the Exxon Valdez oil spill, there was no baseline date available for the abundant number of species existing in Prince William Sound. Because of this lack of data, numbers of oil spill-related casualties and recovery rates have been difficult to determine. Legal responsibility of ExxonMobil The settlement among the State of Alaska, the U. S. government and Exxon was approved by the U. S. District Court on Oct. 9, 1991. It resolved various criminal charges against Exxon as well as civil claims brought by the federal and state governments for recovery of natural resource damages resulting from the oil spill. The settlement was comprised of criminal and civil settlements with Exxon, as well as a civil settlement with Alyeska Pipeline Service Company. Criminal Settlement Plea Agreement Exxon was fined $150 million, the largest fine ever imposed for an environmental crime. The court forgave $125 million of that fine in recognition of Exxon’s cooperation in cleaning up the spill and paying certain private claims. Of the remaining $25 million, $12 million went to the North American Wetlands Conservation Fund and $13 million went to the national Victims of Crime Fund. Criminal Restitution As restitution for the injuries caused to the fish, wildlife, and lands of the spill region, Exxon agreed to pay $100 million. This money was divided evenly between the federal and state governments. Civil Settlement Exxon agreed to pay $900 million in ten annual installments. The final payment was received in Sept. 2001. The settlement contains a â€Å"reopener window† between Sept. 1, 2002 and Sept. 1, 2006, during which the state and federal governments may make a claim for up to an additional $100 million. The funds must be used to restore resources that suffered a substantial loss or decline as a result of the oil spill, the injuries to which could not have been known or anticipated by the six trustees from any information in their possession or reasonably available to any of them at the time of the settlement (Sept. 25, 1991). The response of ExxonMobil [pic] [pic] Exxon logo. ExxonMobil acknowledged that the Exxon Valdez oil spill was a tragic accident that the company deeply regrets. Exxon notes that company took immediate responsibility for the spill, cleaned it up, and voluntarily compensated those who claimed direct damages. ExxonMobil paid $300 million immediately and voluntarily to more than 11,000 Alaskans and businesses affected by the Valdez spill. In addition, the company paid $2. 2 billion on the cleanup of Prince William Sound, staying with the cleanup from 1989 to 1992, when the State of Alaska and the U. S. Coast Guard declared the cleanup complete. And, as noted above, ExxonMobil also has paid $1 billion in settlements with the state and federal governments. That money is being used for environmental studies and conservation programs for Prince William Sound. ExxonMobil hired its own scientists to study the impacts of the spill, and they come to different conclusions than many of the results published by government agencies and peer-reviewed academic journals. Exxon’s scientists acknowledge the lingering pockets of oil in the sediments, but they argue that they do not pose a serious risk. It is their position that that there are now no species in Prince William Sound in trouble due to the impact of the 1989 oil spill, and that the data strongly support the position of a fully recovered Prince William Sound ecosystem. Lessons learned from the spill The scientists who monitored the oiled parts of Prince William Sound wanted to study the shoreline’s ecological recovery after an environmental disaster like the Exxon Valdez spill, and then use those lessons to better respond to future oil spills. Right now, their task is still incomplete. However, some of their findings have changed the way they think about cleaning up oil spills, and about how ecosystems respond to such disturbances. Following are some examples of what they have learned: 1. Clean-up attempts can be more damaging than the oil itself, with impacts recurring as long as clean-up (including both chemical and physical methods) continues. Because of the pervasiveness of strong biological interactions in rocky intertidal and kelp forest communities, cascades of delayed, indirect impacts (especially of trophic cascades and biogenic habitat loss) expand the scope of injury well beyond the initial direct losses and thereby also delay recoveries. 2. Oil that penetrates deeply into beaches can remain relatively fresh for years and can later come back to the surface and affect nearby animals. In addition, oil degrades at varying rates depending on environment, with subsurface sediments physically protected from disturbance, oxygenation, and photolysis retaining contamination by only partially weathered oil for years. 3. Rocky rubble shores should be of high priority for protection and cleanup because oil tends to penetrate deep and weather very slowly in these habitats, prolonging the harmful effects of the oil when it leaches out. . Oil effects to sea birds and mammals also are substantial (independent of means of insulation) over the long-term through interactions between natural environmental stressors and compromised health of exposed animals, through chronic toxic exposure from ingesting contaminated prey or during foraging around persistent sedimentary pools of oil, and through disruption of vital social functions (caregivin g or reproduction) in socially organized species. 5. Long-term exposure of fish embryos to weathered oil at parts per billion (ppb) concentrations has population consequences through indirect effects on growth, deformities, and behavior with long-term consequences on mortality and reproduction. The Exxon Valdez also triggered major improvements in oil spill prevention and response planning. 1. The U. S. Coast Guard now monitors fully-laden tankers via satellite as they pass through Valdez Narrows, cruise by Bligh Island, and exit Prince William Sound at Hinchinbrook Entrance. In 1989, the Coast Guard watched the tankers only through Valdez Narrows and Valdez Arm. . Two escort vessels accompany each tanker while passing through the entire Sound. They not only watch over the tankers, but are capable of assisting them in the event of an emergency, such as a loss of power or loss of rudder control. Fifteen years ago, there was only one escort vessel through Valdez Narrows. 3. Specially trained marine pilots, with considerable experience in Prince William Sound, board tankers from their new pilot station at Bligh Reef and are aboard the ship for 25 miles out of the 70-mile transit through the Sound. Weather criteria for safe navigation are firmly established. 4. Congress enacted legislation requiring that all tankers in Prince William Sound be double-hulled by the year 2015. It is estimated that if the Exxon Valdez had had a double-hull structure, the amount of the spill would have been reduced by more than half. There are presently three double-hulled and twelve double-bottomed tankers moving oil through Prince William Sound. Two more Endeavor class tankers are under construction by ConocoPhillips, their expected induction into service is 2004 and 2005. . Contingency planning for oil spills in Prince William Sound must now include a scenario for a spill of 12. 6 million gallons. Drills are held in the Sound each year. 6. The combined ability of skimming systems to remove oil from the water is now 10 times greater than it was in 1989, with equipment in place capable of recovering over 300,000 barrels of oil in 72 hours. 7. Even if oil could have been skimmed up in 1989, there wa s no place to put the oil-water mix. Today, seven barges are available with a capacity to hold 818,000 barrels of recovered oil. . There are now 40 miles of containment boom in Prince William Sound, seven times the amount available at the time of the Exxon Valdez spill. 9. Dispersants are now stockpiled for use and systems are in place to apply them from helicopters, airplanes, and boats. Further Reading †¢ Alaska Fisheries Science Center, NOAA. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: How Much Oil Remains? †¢ Alaska Oil Spill Commission. 1990. Spill, the wreck of the Exxon Valdez: implications for safe transportation of oil (Final report). Juneau, AK. †¢ National Transportation Safety Board. 1990. Marine Accident Report: Grounding of the U. S. Tankship Exxon Valdez: on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound, near Valdez, Alaska, March 24, 1989. Washington, D. C. : NTSB. NTSB/MAR-90/04. 255 p. †¢ Peterson, Charles H. , Stanley D. Rice, Jeffrey W. Short, Daniel Esler, James L. Bodkin, Brenda E. Ballachey, David B. Irons. 2003. Long-Term Ecosystem Response to the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Science 302: 2082-2086. |Disclaimer: This article is taken wholly from, or contains information that was originally published by, the | |National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Topic editors and authors for the Encyclopedia of Earth may have | |edited its content or added new information. The use of information from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric | |Administration should not be construed as support for or endorsement by that organization for any new information | |added by EoE personnel, or for any editing of the original content. | Citation Cleveland, Cutler (Contributing Author); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Content source); Peter Saundry (Topic Editor). 2008. Exxon Valdez oil spill. † In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland (Washington, D. C. : Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment). [First published in the Encyclopedia of Earth August 17, 2006; Last revised August 26, 2008; Retrieved March 28, 2010]. Editing this Article We invite all scientists, environmental professionals and science attentive individuals to help improve this article and the EoE by clicking her e EDIT CITE EMAIL PRINT NCSE Boston University M1 Digital Universe Unless otherwise noted, all text is available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike license. Privacy Policy | Terms of Use | Neutrality Policy Supported by the Environmental Information Coalition and the National Council for Science and the Environment. Unless otherwise noted, all text is available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike license. Please see the Encyclopedia of Earth’s website for Terms of Use information. Supported by the Environmental Information Coalition and the National Council for Science and the Environment. [pic][pic] How to cite Exxon Mobil and Environment, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

One Art free essay sample

One Art by Elizabeth Bishop is a villanelle poem. A villanelle poem is a nineteen line poem that consists of five, three-line stanza followed by a quatrain. Bishop’s poem brings a fascinating irony between different levels of losses. Between each stanza, the development of trivial losses escalates into a bigger and traumatic loss that was unprepared for. An intense repetition of the phrase â€Å"the art of losing isn’t hard to master† suggests a few given things (Bishop 1499). She attempts to bring out the fact that â€Å"losing† is a type of skill that you can gain by overcoming. Therefore, by mastering it, you have the ultimate control. Throughout the poem, the phrase â€Å"art of losing† has been used to emphasize the speaker’s effect on how â€Å"it isn’t hard to master,† which suggests â€Å" that the speaker is trying to convince herself that losing things is not hard and she should not worry† (â€Å"Essay Interpreting one Art By Elizabeth Bishop Page 1 of 2). We will write a custom essay sample on One Art or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In fact, the â€Å"art of losing† takes an increasingly significant role all throughout the poem. Each stanza represents what she loss and the level of the loss. †Language and verse form show in â€Å"One Art how the losses increase in importance as the poem progresses, with the losses in lines 1-15 being mostly trivial or not very important to the great loss in lines 16-19 or a beloved person† (Page 2 of 2). From the beginning of the poem, her losses began to be trivial such as â€Å"lost door keys, the hourly bad spent† (Bishop 1499). Bishop used â€Å"second person. â€Å"Lose something every day. † seems to command one to practice the art of losing things† (Page 1 of 2). Towards the last three stanzas, the second person point of view was shifted to first person point of view after a few references to herself using the subject â€Å"I. † Bishop also suggests how you can practice to perform this type of art by using illustrations of progressive losses from trivial to more significant losses throughout the poem. â€Å"Four times, the narrator asserts that there these losses are â€Å"no disaster. Thus, the central thesis of this poem is that over time, one may learn to cope with loss, even with the loss of those we love† (â€Å"Elizabeth Bishop’s â€Å"One Art† Page 1 of 2). By using different claims of losses, Bishop was able to suggest a statement following certain types of solutions to deal with the loss. For example, the first stanza, including throughout the poem, in cluded the fiercely used phrase that â€Å"the art of losing isn’t hard to master† (Bishop 1499). In the second stanza, it provides the answer to the conflict of trying to master the art of losing by â€Å"losing something every day. Accept the fluster of lost door keys, the hourly bad spent†¦Ã¢â‚¬  With this said, Bishop suggests to readers that by â€Å"practicing losing farther, losing faster,† the readers will be able to achieve their goal: to master the art of losing (1499). â€Å"As we do so, we will recognize that these daily losses truly are no significant† (â€Å"Elizabeth Bishop’s â€Å"One Art† Page 1 of 2). When Bishop adds reference to herself in the poem, the transition from the more trivial day-to-day losses is nothing compared to her own specific incidents. Her incidents include â€Å"lost of her mother’s watch,†¦/†¦next-to-last, of three loved houses went. /†¦lost two cities, lovely ones. And, vaster,/ some realms I owned, two rivers, a continent†¦Ã¢â‚¬ (Bishop 1499). The bigger loss suggested in this poem was â€Å"-Even losing you† (1499). The Webster definition of losing is: resulting in or likely to result in defeat, or marked by many losses or more losses than wins. In the beginning of this poem, losing is defined as the misplacement of an item; therefore, resulting in not being able to locate the item again. For instance, the lost door keys were a misplaced item. But, as the poem progresses, the items being lost are getting bigger and more significant. The level of losing is definitely becoming more defining and more coping. â€Å"Places, and names, and where it was you meant/ to travel I lost my mother’s watch. And look! my last, or/next-to last, of three loved houses went†¦I lost two cities, lovely ones. And, vaster,/ some realms I owned, two rivers, a continent/†¦it wasn’t a disaster† (Bishop 1499). The combination of stanza 4 and 5 give a couple of suggestions. First, the poem progressed from the smaller things that should not have been of concern to larger things that start to matter. â€Å"But by stanza four, a slightly different meaning of â€Å"losing† creeps into the poem—that is, â€Å"losing† as â€Å"coping with loss†¦The narrator apparently manages to cope†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Elizabeth Bishop’s â€Å"One Art† Page 2 of 2). In this poem, the attitude that the speaker conveys in each stanza seems to fluctuate as the losses get greater. With her uses of punctuation and â€Å"courageous pretense built into this poem,† it seems as though Bishop tries to convey a â€Å"wry, funny, and flippant and very determined not to sound weepy- eyed† type of attitude (Krishnan Page 1 of 3). The trivial matters suggested in the beginning of the poem don’t seem to cause a big affect on the speaker’s attitude. Towards the end, the poem conveyed a sense of how the speaker was feeling by using â€Å"the joking voice, a gesture I love† (Bishop 1499). With this â€Å"joking voice,† she was able to yet again point out that â€Å"the art of losing’s not too hard to master† (1499). With this repetitive type of suggestion, it is almost as if â€Å"this phrase turns it into an incantation, warding off potential feelings of loss† (Elizabeth Bishops One Art† Page 2 of 2). This poem uses an abundant amount of literary devices especially hyperboles and irony. One Art is a very ironic villanelle poem. The phrase â€Å"losing is an art† might suggest that her attempt of persuading herself and readers that internal pain can be evaded; even if the predictable, and most catastrophic, losses that happen in our lives does not have to be a disaster; or could it be an excuse? One Art free essay sample A villanelle poem is a nineteen line poem that consists of five, three-line stanza followed by a quatrain. Bishop’s poem brings a fascinating irony between different levels of losses. Between each stanza, the development of trivial losses escalates into a bigger and traumatic loss that was unprepared for. An intense repetition of the phrase â€Å"the art of losing isn’t hard to master† suggests a few given things (Bishop 1499). She attempts to bring out the fact that â€Å"losing† is a type of skill that you can gain by overcoming. Therefore, by mastering it, you have the ultimate control. Throughout the poem, the phrase â€Å"art of losing† has been used to emphasize the speaker’s effect on how â€Å"it isn’t hard to master,† which suggests â€Å" that the speaker is trying to convince herself that losing things is not hard and she should not worry† (â€Å"Essay Interpreting one Art By Elizabeth Bishop Page 1 of 2). We will write a custom essay sample on One Art or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In fact, the â€Å"art of losing† takes an increasingly significant role all throughout the poem. Each stanza represents what she loss and the level of the loss. †Language and verse form show in â€Å"One Art how the losses increase in importance as the poem progresses, with the losses in lines 1-15 being mostly trivial or not very important to the great loss in lines 16-19 or a beloved person† (Page 2 of 2). From the beginning of the poem, her losses began to be trivial such as â€Å"lost door keys, the hourly bad spent† (Bishop 1499). Bishop used â€Å"second person. â€Å"Lose something every day. † seems to command one to practice the art of losing things† (Page 1 of 2). Towards the last three stanzas, the second person point of view was shifted to first person point of view after a few references to herself using the subject â€Å"I. † Bishop also suggests how you can practice to perform this type of art by using illustrations of progressive losses from trivial to more significant losses throughout the poem. â€Å"Four times, the narrator asserts that there these losses are â€Å"no disaster. Thus, the central thesis of this poem is that over time, one may learn to cope with loss, even with the loss of those we love† (â€Å"Elizabeth Bishop’s â€Å"One Art† Page 1 of 2). By using different claims of losses, Bishop was able to suggest a statement following certain types of solutions to deal with the loss. For example, the first stanza, including throughout the poem, included the fiercely used phrase that â€Å"the art of losing isn’t hard to master† (Bishop 1499). In the second stanza, it provides the answer to the conflict of trying to master the art of losing by â€Å"losing something every day. Accept the fluster of lost door keys, the hourly bad spent†¦Ã¢â‚¬  With this said, Bishop suggests to readers that by â€Å"practicing losing farther, losing faster,† the readers will be able to achieve their goal: to master the art of losing (1499). â€Å"As we do so, we will recognize that these daily losses truly are no signifi cant† (â€Å"Elizabeth Bishop’s â€Å"One Art† Page 1 of 2). When Bishop adds reference to herself in the poem, the transition from the more trivial day-to-day losses is nothing compared to her own specific incidents. Her incidents include â€Å"lost of her mother’s watch,†¦/†¦next-to-last, of three loved houses went. /†¦lost two cities, lovely ones. And, vaster,/ some realms I owned, two rivers, a continent†¦Ã¢â‚¬ (Bishop 1499). The bigger loss suggested in this poem was â€Å"-Even losing you† (1499). The Webster definition of losing is: resulting in or likely to result in defeat, or marked by many losses or more losses than wins. In the beginning of this poem, losing is defined as the misplacement of an item; therefore, resulting in not being able to locate the item again. For instance, the lost door keys were a misplaced item. But, as the poem progresses, the items being lost are getting bigger and more significant. The level of losing is definitely becoming more defining and more coping. â€Å"Places, and names, and where it was you meant/ to travel I lost my mother’s watch. And look! my last, or/next-to last, of three loved houses went†¦I lost two cities, lovely ones. And, vaster,/ some realms I owned, two rivers, a continent/†¦it wasn’t a disaster† (Bishop 1499). The combination of stanza 4 and 5 give a couple of suggestions. First, the poem progressed from the smaller things that should not have been of concern to larger things that start to matter. â€Å"But by stanza four, a slightly different meaning of â€Å"losing† creeps into the poem—that is, â€Å"losing† as â€Å"coping with loss†¦The narrator apparently manages to cope†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Elizabeth Bishop’s â€Å"One Art† Page 2 of 2). In this poem, the attitude that the speaker conveys in each stanza seems to fluctuate as the losses get greater. With her uses of punctuation and â€Å"courageous pretense built into this poem,† it seems as though Bishop tries to convey a â€Å"wry, funny, and flippant and very determined not to sound weepy- eyed† type of attitude (Krishnan Page 1 of 3). The trivial matters suggested in the beginning of the poem don’t seem to cause a big affect on the speaker’s attitude. Towards the end, the poem conveyed a sense of how the speaker was feeling by using â€Å"the joking voice, a gesture I love† (Bishop 1499). With this â€Å"joking voice,† she was able to yet again point out that â€Å"the art of losing’s not too hard to master† (1499). With this repetitive type of suggestion, it is almost as if â€Å"this phrase turns it into an incantation, warding off potential feelings of loss† (Elizabeth Bishops One Art† Page 2 of 2). This poem uses an abundant amount of literary devices especially hyperboles and irony. One Art is a very ironic villanelle poem. The phrase â€Å"losing is an art† might suggest that her attempt of persuading herself and readers that internal pain can be evaded; even if the predictable, and most catastrophic, losses that happen in our lives does not have to be a disaster; or could it be an excuse? (Schmeer Page 1 of 3). The hedging in the narrators phrases parallels hedging throughout this poem, a poem whose very existence denies what its lines seem to want to claim: the art of losing is hard to master, especially when that art refers to coping with the loss of someone we love, someone who goes away, someone whose going away is a disaster†.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Library Management System Essays

Library Management System Essays Library Management System Essay Library Management System Essay Library is an important part of the academic sector as well as some professional sectors too like, Advocacy etc. The efficiency of a library lies in the fact how it is arranged and how easily one can get the books of their choice. Generally, what we see nowadays is the manual library management system whose process of operation is very much hectic. What we are doing is that we are proposing a computerised library management system, which would provide better and efficient service to the library members. Brief outline of the application:- 1. Purpose: This software is meant to transform the hectic manual system to a more efficient computerised system. 2. Scope: This application can be used efficiently in educational institutes and certain professional sectors also. 3. Assumptions: This application assumes that the user doesn’t possess the right to modify information about books. 4. Technology Used: Visual Studio 6(for form designing). Presently, a manual system for managing the library is employed almost everywhere. What exactly is done here is that the persons who like to get the benefits of the library have to fill the membership form and then they are provided with a Identity Card. Members have to bring their Identity card each time they want to borrow a book to home or they want to read the book in the library itself. In this process each transaction are to be noted down in the specified registers and then signed by the member and the library attendant. Drawbacks of the Present System:- Some of the problems being faced in manual system are as Follows:- 1. Fast report generation is not possible. 2. Tracing a book is difficult. 3. Information about issue/return of the books is not properly maintained. 4. No central database can be created as information is not available in the database. The proposed system aims at transforming the manual system into a computerised one. The benefits of the computerised â€Å"Library Management System† are : 1. Planned approach towards working: -The working in the organization will be well planned and organized. The data will be stored properly in data stores, which will help in retrieval of information as well as its storage. 2. Accuracy: -The level of accuracy in the proposed system will be higher. All operation would be done correctly and it ensures that whatever information is coming from the centre is accurate. 3. Reliability: -The reliability of the proposed system will be high due to the above stated reasons. The reason for the increased reliability of the system is that now there would be proper storage of information. . No Redundancy: -In the proposed system utmost care would be that no information is repeated anywhere, in storage or otherwise. This would assure economic use of storage space and consistency in the data stored. 5. Immediate retrieval of information:- In manual system there are many problems to retrieve large amount of information. In this system retrieval is very fa st. 6. Easy to operate: -The system should be easy to operate and should be such that it can be developed within a short period of time and fit in the limited budget of the user. Depending on the results of the initial investigation the survey is now expanded to a more detailed feasibility study. It is a test of system proposal according to its workability, impact of the organization, ability to meet needs and effective use of the resources. It focuses on these major questions:- 1. What are the user needs and how does our system meet that? 2. What and how much resources are being needed for the proposed system? 3. What are the likely impacts of the proposed system? 4. Whether the proposed system solves the present problem? Steps in feasibility analysis:- Eight steps involved in the feasibility analysis are:- . Form a Project team and appoint a Project leader. 2. Prepare system flowcharts. 3. Enumerate potential proposed system. 4. Define and identify characteristics of the proposed system. 5. Determine and evaluate performance and cost effectiveness of the proposed system. 6. Weigh system performance. 7. Prepare the final report and present to the management. 1. Technical Feasibility:- It is the study of resource availability that may affect the ability to achieve an acceptable system. This evaluation determines whether the technology needed for the proposed system is available or not. It decides whether the work for the project be done with current equipments and existing technology. It is thus associated with specifying equipments and software that will successfully satisfy the consumer’s requirement. The technical needs of the system may include:- Front end and back end selection:- An important issue for the development of a project is the selection of suitable front-end and back-end. When we decide to develop the project we go through an extensive study to determine the most suitable platform that suits the needs of the consumer as well as helps in development of the project. The aspects of our study include the following factors:- Front end selection:- 1. It must have a graphical user interface that assists persons not from the computer background. 2. Scalability and Extendibility. 3. Flexibility. 4. Robustness. 5. It must be according to the customer’s requirement and culture. 6. It should have an independent platform. 7. It should be easy to debug and maintain. 8. Front end must support some possible back ends such as MS Access. Back end selection:- 1. Multiple user support 2. Efficient data handling 3. Provide inherent features for security. . Efficient data retrieval and maintenance 5. Store procedures 6. Popularity 7. Compatibility with OS 8. Easy to install 9. Various drivers must be available. 10. Easy to implant with the front end. The technical feasibility is frequently the most difficult area encountered at this stage. It is essential that the process of analysis and definition be conducted in parallel with an assessment to technical fea sibility. It centres on the existing computer system (hardware, software etc. ) and to what extent it can support the proposed system. 2. Economic Feasibility:- Economic justification is generally the â€Å"Bottom Line† consideration for most systems. Economic justification includes a broad range of concerns that includes cost benefit analysis. In this we weigh the cost and the benefits associated with the proposed system and if it suits the basic purpose of the organization i. e. profit making, the project is making to the analysis and design phase. The financial and the economic questions during the preliminary investigation are verified to estimate the following:- 1. The cost to conduct a full system investigation. 2. The cost of hardware and the software for the application being considered. 3. The benefits in the terms of reduced cost. 4. The proposed system will give the minute information, as a result the performance is increased which in turn may be expected to provide extra economic benefits. 5. It checks whether the application can be developed with the available funds. The Library Management System does not require enormous amount of money to be developed. It can be developed economically if planned judicially. The cost of project depends on the number of man-hours required. 3. Operational Feasibility:- It is mainly related to human organizations and political aspects. The points to be considered are:- 1. What changes will be brought with the system? 2. What organization structures will be disturbed? 3. What new skills will be required? Do the existing technicians have the skills? If not, can they be trained in due course of time? Our system is economically feasible as it is very easy for the customers to use it. They just need how to work on the windows platform. 4. Schedule Feasibility:- Time evaluation is the most important consideration in the development of project. The time schedule required for the developed of this project is very important since more development time effect machine time, cost and cause delay in the development of other systems. A reliable Library Management System can be developed in the considerable amount of time. Before starting to design a software product, it is extremely important to understand and document the exact requirements of the customer. In the past many projects have suffered because the developers started implementing something without determining whether they were building what the customers exactly wanted. The primary goal of the requirement analysis and specification phase is to clearly understand the customer requirements and to systematically organize the requirements into a specification document. The SRS document is the final outcome of the requirements analysis and specification phase. Generally requirement gathering consists of the following phases:- 1. Studying the existing documentation: The analyst usually studies all existing documents regarding the system to be developed before visiting the customer site. Typically these documents pertain to issues such as the context, the basic purpose, the stakeholders, etc. . Interview: Typically there are many different categories of users of software. All the different categories of users are interviewed to gather the different functionalities required by them. Based on the interview the document is made. 3. Task Analysis: -The users usually view software as a black box that provides a set of service. A service is also known as a tas k. For each identified task, the analyst tries to formulate the different steps necessary to realize the service in consultation with the users. 4. Scenario Analysis: A task can have many scenarios of operation. The different scenarios of a task can occur when the task is invoked under different situations. For different types of scenarios of a task, the behaviour of the system can be different. 5. Form analysis: The different forms are analyzed to determine the data input to the system and the data that are output from the system. For the different data input to the system, how these are used by the system to produce the corresponding output data are determined from the users. Characteristics of a good SRS document: The skill of writing a good SRS document usually comes from the experience gained from writing SRS documents for many problems. However the analyst should be aware of the desired qualities that every good SRS document should possess. Some of the identified desired qualities of the SRS documents are the following: 1. Concise: -The SRS document should be concise and at the same time unambiguous, consistent, and complete. Verbose and irrelevant descriptions reduce readability and also increase error possibilities. 2. Structured:- A good SRS document should be well structured which is easy to understand and modify. In practice, the SRS document undergoes several revisions to cope up with the customer requirements. Thus it is important that it is well structured. 3. Traceable: It should be possible to trace a specific requirement to the design elements that implement it and vice versa. Similarly, it should be possible to trace a requirement to the code segments that implement it and the test cases that test this requirement and vice versa. Traceability is important to verify the results of a phase with the previous phase, to analyze the impact of a change, etc. 4. Response to undesired events: It should characterize acceptable responses to undesired events. These are called system response to exceptional conditions. . Verifiable: All requirements of the system as documented in the SRS document should be verifiable. This means that it should be possible to determine whether or not requirements have been met in an implementation. Any feature of the required system that is not verifiable should be listed separately in the goals of the implementation section of the SRS document. Project Requirem ents:- 1. User Requirements:- Every user should be: Comfortable with working of a computer. He must have knowledge of library. He must also have basic knowledge of English. 2. Hardware Requirements: Processor: -Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium IV or higher RAM : -64 Mb or Higher 130 Mb 3. Software Requirements: Operating System: -Win-98, Win-XP, Linux or any other higher version Database: -Ms Access It is clear that the physical objects from the previous section the member, books, library – correspond to entities in the entity relationship model and the operations to be done on those entities holds, checkouts, and so on – correspond to relationships. However, a good design will minimize redundancy and attempt to store all the required information in as small a space as possible. This application can be easily implemented under various situations. We can add new features as and when we require. Reusability is possible as and when require in this application. There is flexibility in all the modules. Extensibility: This software is extendable in ways that its original developers may not expect. The following principles enhance extensibility like hide data structure, avoid traversing multiple links or methods, avoid case statements on object type and distinguish public and private operations. Reusability: -Reusability is possible as and when require in this application. We can update it next version. Reusable software reduces design, coding and testing cost by amortizing effort over several designs. Reducing the amount of code also simplifies understanding, which increases the likelihood that the code is correct. We follow up both types of reusability: Sharing of newly written code within a project and reuse of previously written code on new projects. Understand ability: -A method is understandable if someone other than the creator of the method can understand the code (as well as the creator after a time lapse). We use the method, which small and coherent helps to accomplish this. Cost Effectiveness: -Its cost is under the budget and make within given time period. It is desirable to aim for a system with a minimum cost subject to the condition that it must satisfy the entire requirement. After we have completed the project we are sure the problems in the existing system would overcome. The â€Å"LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM† process is made computerized to reduce human errors and to increase the efficiency. The main focus of this project is to lessen human efforts. The maintenance of the records is made efficient, as all the records are stored in the ACCESS database, through which data can be retrieved easily. The navigation control is provided in all the forms to navigate through the large amount of records. If the numbers of records are very large then user has to just type in the search string and user gets the results immediately. The editing is also made simpler. The user has to just type in the required field and press the update button to update the desired field. The Books and Students are given a particular unique id no. So that they can be accessed correctly and without errors. Our main aim of the project is to get the correct information about a particular student and books available in the library. The problems, which existed in the earlier system, have been removed to a large extent. And it is expected that this project will go a long way in satisfying user’s requirements. The computerization of the Library Management will not only improves the efficiency but will also reduce human stress thereby indirectly improving human recourses Books: 1. Fundamentals of Software Engineering by Rajib Mall(PHI) 2. Black Book of Visual Basic 3. Visual Basic by Tata McGraw Hill(TMH) Web Sites: 1. www. apache. org 2. www. wikipedia. com 3. www. iisjaipur. org

Monday, March 2, 2020

How Educators Can Use Google Classroom

How Educators Can Use Google Classroom Google Classroom  is one of Google for Educations newest products and it has received rave reviews from many educators. It is a learning management system that allows you to digitally create and manage assignments as well as to provide feedback to your students. Google Classroom works particularly with   Google Apps for Education, a suite of productivity tools (Drive, Docs, Gmail, etc) that you may already use in your school.​ Google Classroom is beneficial for both novice and advanced users of Google Apps for Education. It is has a simple, easy-to-navigate interface that appeals to many teachers. If you are already pretty adept at using Docs and Google Drive folders to manage student work, you may be surprised to find that Google Classroom makes this process even easier for you. Google Classroom has evolved considerably since its debut last summer. New features seem to be added all the time, so stay tuned for future improvements! View this short introductory video  from Google and this presentation  by Heather Breedlove in order to familiarize yourself with Google Classroom. Important Links for Future Reference Here are four links that youll want to keep handy for future reference: Google Classroom on the WebGoogle Classroom iPad AppGoogle Classroom Help CenterGoogle Classroom Training Materials Step 1: Log in to Google Classroom   Go to  https://classroom.google.com/. Make sure you are logged in with your Google Apps for Education account. If you are using your personal Google account or are at a school  that does not use GAFE, you will not be able to use Classroom.You should see your Google Classroom Home. Below is a picture of my homepage with annotations to explain different features.Click on the sign to create your first class. Create one for an existing class or a practice one for purposes of this tutorial. Step 2: Create a Class Do the following practice activities. Notice that there are three tabs in a class: Stream, Students, and About. These support materials will help you with this step.   Select the About tab. Fill in basic information about your class. Notice that there is a folder in YOUR Google Drive that will contain files related to this class.Click on the Students tab and add a student or two (perhaps a colleague who will serve as a guinea pig for this experiment). Make sure to indicate what permissions you want these students to have in relation to posting and commenting.And/or, give the class code posted in the   Student tab to a student or colleague for practice. This code is also available on your Stream tab.Go to your Stream tab. Share an announcement with your class. Notice how you can attach a file, a document from Google Drive, a YouTube video or a link to another resource.Staying in your Stream tab, create a mock assignment for this class. Fill in the title, description, and give it a due date. Attach any resources and assign the assignment to students enrolled in this class. Step 3: Monitor Student Assignments   Here is information on grading and returning assignments.   On your Stream tab, you should now see your assignments in the left-hand corner under the heading Upcoming Assignments. Click on one of your assignments.This will lead to a page where you can see students status in terms of work completion. This is called the student work page. For an assignment to have been marked complete, the student will need to turn it into their Google Classroom account.Note that you can assign grades and points. Click on a student and you can send them a private comment.If you check the box next to a students name, you can email the student or students.If a student has submitted work, you can then grade it and return it to the student.To see all student work at the same time, you need to click Folder at the top of the Student Work page. This Folder link will be grayed out until students have turned in work. Step 4: Try Classroom From the Student Perspective Specific student help is available here.   Ask a colleague to invite you to their practice class and to create an assignment for that class.Pretend to turn in the assignment.Have your colleague grade this assignment and return it to you. Step 5:  Consider Creative Uses of Google Classroom How could we use Google Classroom in innovative ways?   To house professional development materials.To deliver digital citizenship curriculum.To manage departmental activities, meetings, and projects. Step 6:  Download the iPad App and Repeat the Previous Activities How does the Google Classroom experience on the iPad differs from the web experience? Any features that are unique to the app perspective? Discuss your findings with your colleagues and share your preferred method of using Google Classroom.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Federal Contracting Activities and Contract Types Assignment - 1

Federal Contracting Activities and Contract Types - Assignment Example This centre has twenty five functional operatories, fourteen operational digital x-ray units, a training and technology centre, and specialty displays. The centre provides dentists with an opportunity to test the equipment before purchase. The company has employed around four hundred sales agents across the country, who serve their over thirty thousand customers. In addition, the company employs two hundred and sixty five factory-trained technicians to ensure that the best services are offered to the customers. The corporation has been selected seven times as one of the most excellent companies to work in PA program. The company, which is family owned, is currently managed by this family’s third generation. The company was recently awarded a federal contract worth 31,346,173 (Dentistry, 2012). The contract was awarded by the Philadelphia defense logistics agency troop support. The company is expected to supply the US army, air force, navy, and Marine Corps in Philadelphia with general dental supplies. These supplies include dental products, dental consulting, services, and equipments that the defense forces require in their hospitals, camps, and missions out of the country. These supplies were expected to assist the defense logistics agency to provide the best value service/products to its employees. By awarding this contract to Benco Dental, the Philadelphia defense department had an assurance that the company would deliver. Since the company is a major distribution of dental supplies, it had the capability and the means to supply the defense forces with all the required supplies. The company was awarded a firm fixed price type of contract by the defense department. This particular type of contract was preferred, because the government had limited budget that it allocated to contractors for a specific period of time. The federal